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Voting System

Essential Conditions for a Complete Voting System

  1. Reliability, Transparency, and Censorship Resistance
  2. Protection of Voter's Personal Information and Resistance to Coercion
  3. Easy Accessibility
  4. Verification of the Entire Voting Process and Results by Voters and Organizers at Any Time
  5. Appropriate Incentives

Firstly, 'reliability', 'transparency', and 'censorship resistance' are crucial elements in a voting system.

'Reliability' ensures that voters can be confident their votes are accurately tallied. Voters should be able to confirm that their vote has been correctly processed (Correct execution*1) and included in the ballot box without duplication. Next, 'transparency' means the voting process must be complete and consistent. Additionally, 'censorship resistance*2' is the characteristic that ensures every voter's vote is accurately tallied without central intervention. To guarantee this, the entire voting process must be transparently handled through smart contracts implemented on the zero-knowledge proof blockchain (zkBlockchain). These three elements are key criteria for ensuring the integrity of the voting system and gaining the trust of voters. (Zero-Knowledge Proof Blockchain, Smart Contracts)

*1 Correct Execution: In voting, correct execution means that all votes are accurately tallied and reflected in the final results without omission. This guarantees the accuracy and integrity of the voting results. Similarly, correct execution is crucial in blockchain, meaning that the transactions sent by users are processed correctly according to predefined rules, and the results are accurately reflected in the blockchain state. This maintains the consistency and integrity of blockchain data, creating a reliable transaction record.
In the case of public blockchains, where various transactions are processed simultaneously, there's a possibility that specific voting transactions might be included in a block after the voting deadline. To address this issue, it's necessary to efficiently design a transaction relay server (TX Relay Server) to ensure that specific voting transactions are included in a block in time.
*2 Censorship resistance refers to the freedom of information transfer and action without control from central authorities or power figures. In a decentralized voting system, this is a key element that prevents manipulation or alteration of the voting process or results by any organization or group. For example, if a power holder attempts to delete or hide unfavorable voting results, a decentralized voting system can nullify such attempts. This is particularly important in a democratic system, ensuring that the people's choices are fairly reflected.

Secondly, 'protection of voter's personal information' and 'Coercion Resistance'.

The personal information of voters must be securely protected under all circumstances. For this, the voting system should adhere to the "Own My Data*3" principle, ensuring that only the individual voter owns and has access to their information. 'Coercion Resistance*4' means that the system is protected from the pressure or coercion of specific parties or organizations. In other words, the voting system should function and achieve its goals despite any unfair external interference or pressure. Implementing this ensures that voters' intentions are accurately reflected. By protecting personal information, voters can participate in voting without publicly revealing their opinions, ensuring anonymity and reducing voter anxiety about voting. Furthermore, protecting personal information enhances the reliability of the voting system and contributes to increasing voter turnout. (zk-PUNK, Zero-Knowledge Proof Blockchain)

*3 As of November 2023, the PunkPoll voting system does not fully meet these conditions due to its reliance on messenger-based voting UI. The current trust in PunkPoll is deemed less than that of major messenger apps' end-to-end security, leading to the decision to process voting via chat messages. It operates the voting system on a Zero-Knowledge basis, adhering to the 'Own My Data' principle.
*4 Coercion Resistance (Enhancement of Choice Freedom and Security): Coercion resistance refers to the characteristic of an individual's choice or will being protected from external pressure or coercion. This is especially important in a voting system, as it ensures that voters do not have to disclose their choices to specific parties and are not subject to negative consequences as a result. Such a system allows voters to express their opinions more freely, enhancing the honesty and fairness of the vote.

Thirdly, 'easy accessibility'. The voting system should be designed so that anyone can participate easily at any time, anywhere.

The voting method should be user-friendly and easily accessible, considering online voting through the internet or various messenger apps*5 used by almost all smartphone users. Additionally, providing assistive technology and tools to accommodate all voters, including those with disabilities, should be considered.*6 A voting system that is difficult to access cannot guarantee an equal election, as some voters might not be able to participate or face difficulties in doing so, leading to distorted representation. By ensuring easy accessibility, all voters can participate in the voting process, enabling a fairer and more equal election. This makes the voting results more accurately reflect the opinions of all voters, enhancing the representativeness of the vote. (Messenger Interface and Other User-Environment Friendly UI)

*5 Punkpoll's voting and survey system is currently provided through a user-friendly messenger interface, allowing easy access and use by anyone, anywhere. The platform plans to expand its reach by integrating with more diverse messenger services. This strategic adoption of messenger UI aims to prioritize the user experience. Future updates will include support for UI systems that comply with legal requirements in various countries. Initially, PunkPoll focuses on leveraging blockchain technology's inherent resistance to censorship and commitment to privacy protection to offer an accessible user experience for everyone. The world’s most popular messaging apps.
*6 Plans are underway to develop various tools to enhance voter capabilities, such as braille voting systems for visually impaired individuals.

Fourthly, 'verification of the entire voting process and results by voters and organizers at any time'.

This ensures the transparency of the voting process and strengthens the reliability of the voting results. The voting system should provide features for voters to verify their own voting content.7 This allows voters to confirm that their votes have been accurately recorded. The overall voting results should also be implemented in a way that is easily verifiable, utilizing zero-knowledge proof, blockchain technology, and IPFS*8. These verification features increase the transparency of the voting system and provide trust in the voting process for both voters and organizers. This ensures that the voting results are accurately reflected, guaranteeing the fairness and representativeness of the election. (zk-NFT, DA, IPFS, Verification Process)

*7 For verifying voting results, the PunkPoll voting system uses a unique approach. In this system, after a vote is completed, each participating voter receives a token called 'zk-vote-nft' as a receipt. This token, utilizing zero-knowledge proof technology, allows voters to confirm that their vote has been properly reflected without disclosing the contents of their vote. Voters can verify whether their vote has been correctly included in the voting results at any time with their received 'zk-vote-nft' token.
*8 Punkpoll's voting and survey system offers information accessible via IPFS in a differentiated manner. In the voting system, it's impossible for voters to check individual voting content via IPFS. PunkPoll stores voting information anonymously on the blockchain using zero-knowledge proof technology, and the voting content of each voter is not disclosed. Voters can only confirm whether their vote has been accurately included using data stored on IPFS and the blockchain's Merkle root. This process ensures that neither voting content nor voter identity is disclosed, guaranteeing coercion resistance. The PunkPoll system is implemented to maintain coercion resistance through zero-knowledge proof while allowing voters to verify that their vote has been correctly processed.
In contrast, in the survey system, voters can directly check their response content via IPFS. In surveys, the concept of coercion resistance is less important than allowing voters to confirm which options they have chosen. This is because surveys consist of various items.

Lastly, the system should 'provide appropriate incentives' to increase participation. Providing incentives motivates people to participate in voting.

This leads to increased overall voter turnout, improved representativeness, and better data quality. Incentives*9 increase the likelihood that participants will take more time to respond to votes or opinion polls. Incentives also provide opportunities for marginalized or economically challenged individuals to participate in voting. (Punk Token)

*9 Punkpoll's voting and survey system systemically offers Punk Tokens as rewards to all participating parties. This means that participants receive a definite amount of Punk Tokens each time they participate in a vote or survey.

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